Golomb rulers have been featured twice in the Computer Recreations column of Scientific American, which did much to popularize them. The most recent feature, and a nice introduction to the problems and their applications, can be found at [DewdeyGolomb85, DewdeyGolomb86].
Descriptions of various generalizations (like Golomb rectangles) and additional bibliography can be found at [ShearerCombinatorial]
Scientific American, 21, mar 1986
Scientific American, 16-26, dec 1985
James B. Shearer's Golomb ruler page
James B. Shearer's combinatorial computing page
The optimal Golomb rulers page
W. Rankin's Golomb ruler page